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The average litter size is 10–12 during optimum production, but is highly strain-dependent.Breeding onset occurs at about 50 days of age in both females and males, although females may have their first estrus at 25–40 days.Mice belong to the Euarchontoglires clade, which includes humans.The duration of the estrous cycle is 4–5 days and lasts about 12 hours, occurring in the evening.Mice have been used in biomedical research since the 16th Century when William Harvey used them for his studies on reproduction and blood circulation and Robert Hooke used them to investigate the biological consequences of an increase in air pressure.They are the most commonly used mammalian research model and are used for research in genetics, psychology, medicine and other scientific disciplines.The laboratory mouse is a small mammal of the order Rodentia which is bred and kept for scientific research.In 1902 Lucien Cuénot published the results of his experiments using mice which showed that Mendel's laws of inheritance were also valid for animals — results that were soon confirmed and extended to other species.Mating can be confirmed by the presence of a copulatory plug in the vagina up to 24 hours post-copulation.

Mice are polyestrous and breed year round; ovulation is spontaneous.He then switched his investigations to peas but, as his observations were published in a somewhat obscure botanical journal, they were virtually ignored for over 35 years until they were rediscovered in the early 20th Century.The presence of sperm on a vaginal smear is also a reliable indicator of mating. A fertile postpartum estrus occurs 14–24 hours following parturition, and simultaneous lactation and gestation prolongs gestation by 3–10 days owing to delayed implantation.The laboratory mouse genome has been sequenced and many mouse genes have human homologues.In the early part of the 20th century Clarence Cook Little, a Harvard undergraduate was conducting studies on mouse genetics in the laboratory of William Ernest Castle.

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